There are several tools of increasing complexity that can be used to facilitate a limit equilibrium analysis of rock slopes. The limiting equilibrium methods for slopes under various conditions against wedge failure have been previously proposed by several investigators. Random sets arise as a powerful tool to deal with uncertainty, even when limited information of inputs is available. and rock strengths are the factors controlling failure through the rock mass. 0000005198 00000 n
Rock slope stability analyses are routinely performed and directed towards assessing the safe and functional design of excavated slopes (e.g. 1. Daylighting sheet joint with large perched block in grade III zone or granite rock slope 23 to contend with different geological features or instability problems. Slope failures depend on the soil type, soil stratification, groundwater, seepage, and the slope geometry. Slope stability analysis is a static or dynamic, analytical or empirical method to evaluate the stability of earth and rock-fill dams, embankments, excavated slopes, and natural slopes in soil and rock. 0000001244 00000 n
Although, field observations may provide valuable clues the about The required criteria for wedge failure … CHAPTER 5.0: CIRCULAR FAILURE ANALYSIS . Calculated factor of safety = 0.4. The stability of a particular rock slope is governed by three main engineering geologic factors, Failure of rock or soil slopes takes place due to natural or artificial means. The wedge failure is quite similar to a translational failure. %PDF-1.3
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The toe of the cut was within 6 m (20 ft) of the railway, so even a minor slope failure could reach the track. 0000024197 00000 n
Rock slope stability analyses are routinely performed and directed towards assessing the safe and functional design of excavated slopes (e.g. of Civil and Agricultural Engineering, National Univ. The present work focuses on the study of the wedge failure, which occurs as sliding of a mass of rock on two intersecting planes, generally discontinuity planes. of wedge failure is evident. Wedge Failure Wedge failure, also known as block failure or plane failure, generates a failure plane that is inclined. 93 18
Failure of a rock slope on one or two plane surfaces is the simplest but at the same time the most important type of sliding failure and forms the basis for the stability analysis of rock slopes. Ph.D. Student, Dept. The required criteria for wedge failure … This paper presents the results of the slope failure analyses from fracture distributions and their relation to tectonic activity; the analytical results have indicated that the phenomena of plane failure, wedge failure and toppling failure can occur at almost of the survey sites within the study area. Markland JT. The wedge failure had developed in a rock cut 21 m ( 7 O ft) high that had a face angle of 7 5 °. Plane mode of failure generally occurs in slope formed by stratified sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rock formations. Wedges are defined by two intersecting discontinuity planes, the slope surface and an optional tension crack. 0000000016 00000 n
Improvement of slope failure. Static and seismic slope stability analysis confirmed the global stability of the slope. ���.�9�rWȅ̦�@�s-��q��(E�P���
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820�i~ V�(1�1ȰM. Therefore, the failure of a rock mass occurs partially along joints and partially in non-jointed portions, such as in solid rocks, but in massive rocks, it occurs entirely in solid rocks. 110 0 obj<>stream
E-mail: © 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers, Estimation of the Lower and Upper Probabilities of Failure Using Random Sets and Subset Simulation, Vulnerability, Uncertainty, and Risk: Quantification, Mitigation, and Management, Stochastic Response Surfaces, Interval Analysis, and the Reliability of Structures, Comparison of Slope Reliability Methods of Analysis, GeoFlorida 2010: Advances in Analysis, Modeling & Design, A Random Field Approach to Reliability Analysis With Random and Interval Variables, ASCE-ASME Journal of Risk and Uncertainty in Engineering Systems, Part B: Mechanical Engineering, https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784480007.002, © 1996–2021, American Society of Civil Engineers. Recently, the factor of safety of rock slopes against the wedge failure … 0000005569 00000 n
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A tetrahedral wedge may be formed by two intersecting discontinu- The wedge failure analysis is based on satisfying the equilibrium conditions of the wedge. and/or the ... failure modes (planar, wedge, toppling, etc. Types of Slope Failure. Translational slides in rock masses are dependent upon the spatial arrangement of the discontinuities within the mass and their relationship to the geometry of the slope. 2nd Quarter 2005 C over Story Figure 3. If sliding distance of rock block or rock mass that detached by sliding, toppling, or falling was negligible to descending distance through air, it is dened as The paper i ntroduces a series of guidelines for interpretation of the results of rock slopes. The stability of the rock wedge is controlled by: joint sets dip and dip direction, slope geometry and direction, external forces (including water pressure and earthquake) and rock and joints mechanical properties. DUNCAN C. WYLLIE A wedge failure in a rock slope 21 m (70 ft) high was stabilized by unloading the top third of the failure, constructing a concrete wall to reinforce the … 5.1 Introduction . <]>>
The limiting equilibrium methods for slopes under various conditions against wedge failure have been previously proposed by several investigators. the study of the wedge failure, which occurs as sliding of a mass of rock on two intersecting planes, generally discontinuity planes. The results indicated the potential for both planar … 0000000656 00000 n
Recently, the factor of safety of rock slopes against the wedge failure has been studied in a number of investigations under static … In many cases, spatially in vertical slopes or very steep slopes such as cut slope, other types of rock slope failure (wedge failure, planer failure, and toppling) may eventually lead to the rockfall event. If sliding distance of rock block or rock mass that detached by sliding, toppling, or falling was Figure 1-1: A wedge model in ROCPLANE. An extract from Stability Analysis of Rock Slopes for Plane & Wedge Failure with the Aid of a programmable Pocket Calculator, K. Kovari and P. Fritz, Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland Institute of Highways and Underground Structures, Department of Rock Mechanics, 10 pgs. " ROCK SLOPES MODELING Location of the stations along the Werka descent is traced by the GPS. The stability of jointed rock slopes under different persistence and various water pressure conditions has been studied. While performing kinematic analysis for wedge failure of rock slope in Dips 6.0 software (RocScience), it indicates region of secondary wedge failure envelop (marked by yellow by default). joints, foliation surfaces, bedding planes or faults. 0000004993 00000 n
[22] Smith JV. Multiple failure surfaces usually occur and change continuously as flow proceeds. In d l d k l f l ll d d a moderately jointed rock mass, slope failure is generally dictated directly by the presence of discontinuities, which act as planes of weakness within the rock mass. It is believed that the study can enhance the way for stability analysis and monitoring of the potential failure of jointed rock slopes.Keywords: Wedge failure; Joint persistence; Groundwater; Rock … Natural events include failure due to flash flood, excessive seepage, pore pressure, seismic event, presence of weak discontinuities across the rock slope, shear zones, toe cutting of slope by meandering river leading to unstable slope due to change in slope geometry. The studied mechanism consists of a discrete block that is separated from the rock mass by a tension crack filled with a wedge block or rock fragments. and/or the equilibrium conditions of natural slopes. The aim of the investigation is to determine the influence of the main … Major wedge failure in granite rock slope. Among these mechanisms, the wedge failure is one of the most common ways of failure in rock slopes. This paper presents an alternative approach using closed-form equations, for cases where the upper ground surface dips in the same direction as the slope face. Kinematic Analysis – Rock Slope Wedge Failure Similar to planar failures, seve ral conditions relating to the line of intersection must be met for wedge failure to be kinematically admissible : (i) The dip of the slope must exceed the dip of the line of intersection of the two wedge forming discontinuity planes. The design of such slopes can sometimes be based upon an analysis of simple wedge failure. Unlike translational, wedge failure can occur in both finite and infinite slopes. Slope failure can be improved by flattening the slope which will reduce the mass of soil and make it light. One of the structurally controlled modes of failure in jointed rock slopes is wedge failure. Imp Coll Sci Technol Rock Mech Res Rep 19: 1-10. The main assumptions in a planar wedge analysis such as ROCPLANE… The analysis and design of rock slopes susceptible to wedge failure is of interest to both civil and mining engineering. Abstract: The failure mechanisms of hard rock slopes are usually dominated by the joint and fault system of the rock mass, the properties of which show an inherent spread. Stability Analysis of Rock Slopes with Plane and Wedge Failure by Means of a Pocket Calculator open pit mining, road cuts, etc.) Introduction. For example, failures that involve wedges sliding along the line of intersection of two intersecting faults can be analysed using limit equilibrium models. The determination of representative values for the analysis is therefore crucial. (10 marks) (c) Calculate the factor of safety for wedge failure mode using the formula in Figure Q1(e) when the rock slope is in wet conditions (the student must demonstrate its calculation). Section Name: Rock Mechanics (CED 48) Designator of Legally Binding Document: IS 14448 Title of Legally Binding Document: Code of practice for reinforcement of rock slopes with plane wedge failure Number of Amendments: 1 Equivalence: Superceding: Superceded by: LEGALLY BINDING DOCUMENT Step Out From the Old to the New--Jawaharlal Nehru The lower surface could have high slope while the upper outcrop surface can be a horizontal surface or a surface with low slope angle. However, due to the geological origin of rock masses, these inputs are uncertain. Planar failure … (2016) A method for assessing discontinuity poles for potential wedge sliding. This type of failure is commonly seen in slopes of up to 20 or 30 m high in hard jointed rock masses. sliding failure in rock slopes. Because the rock mass behavior is significantly governed by the presence of joints or other discontinuities, several types of slope failure, such as plane failure, wedge failure, toppling failure, buckling failure and circular failure, are often observed. 0000005398 00000 n
Dilatancy in a rock mass is unconstrained near slopes as normal stress on joints is small due to weight of the wedge. The wedge failure is quite similar to a translational failure. 0000003821 00000 n
of Civil and Agricultural Engineering, National Univ. Wedges are defined by two intersecting discontinuity planes, the slope surface and an optional tension crack. Stability Analysis of Rock Slopes for Plane and Wedge Failure A simple formula for plane slope failure is derived, which may be used for the design of anchors to ensure the safety of rock masses endangered by slides. The results of the stereographic projection show that wedge, plane and toppling Fourth Geo-China International Conference. Plane failure; Wedge failure. We will introduce a few types of slope failure that are common in soils. trailer
The aim of the investigation is to determine the influence of the main … A thermally induced wedging–ratcheting mechanism for slope stability is investigated using a large-scale physical model and using a three-dimensional version of the numerical Distinct Element Method (3DEC). The movement of the failure body may occur in any several modes: translational sliding, rotational sliding, toppling, falling or a combination of modes. In all the above From a rock slope design perspective, the most important characteristic of a discontinuity is its (a) Wedge failure on two Planar failure in rock in which a intersecting discontinuities with discontinuity 'daylights" the a line of intersection which slope face increases more complex mechanisms such as step-path failuresand rotational shear failure , which The rock type was a very competent, massive granite wedge size distributions. Summary A simple formula for plane slope failure is derived, which may be used for the design of … Wedge Failure Wedge failure can occur in rock mass with two or more sets of discontinuities whose lines of intersection are approximately perpendicular to the strike of the slope and dip towards the plane of the slope. The stability of the rock wedge is controlled by: joint sets dip and dip direction, slope geometry and direction, external forces (including water pressure and earthquake) and rock and joints mechanical properties. 4. In rock slopes the potential failure bodies are usually (but not necessarily) bounded by discontinuities i.e. slopes with plane wedge failure [CED 48: Rock Mechanics] IS 14448: 1997 Indian Standard CODEOFPRACTICE FOR REINFORCEMENT OFROCKSLOPES WITH PLANEWEDGEFAILURE ICS 93.020 1997 BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG NEW DELHI 110002 October 1997 Price Group 5 These failure modes pro-vide a basis for the formulation of limit state functions so the prob-lem of stability of individual wedges in rock slopes is considered. xref
The failure surface is ill-defined in flow slides. Contrasting features of the different rock KEYWORDS A wedge failure in a rock slope 21 m (70 ft) high was stabilized by unloading the top third of the failure, constructing a concrete wall to reinforce the toe, and installing tensioned rock anchors. of Colombia, Carrera 30 No. In many cases, rock mass slope stability is controlled by discontinuities, which determine the most likely mechanism of failure, depending on joints and slope geometry. 1). The only difference between the translational failure and the wedge failure is that translational failure only occurs in case of infinite slopes but wedge failure can occur in both infinite and finite slopes. Among these mechanisms, the wedge failure is one of the most common ways of failure in rock slopes. Because the potential failure was located above a major railroad line, it was necessary to carry out this work with minimal interruption of traffic. 0000005774 00000 n
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Flow slides can occur in dry and wet soils. It is very important to identify the position of most critical circle in analysis of such failure.
Wedge failure The slope failure occurred along the plane of the soil mass is known as wedge failure. The stability assessment according to block theory on the contrary follows a deterministic procedure. Slope stability in mining and civil engineering projects is always a problem of great concern. The only difference between the translational failure and the wedge failure is that translational failure only occurs in case of infinite slopes but wedge failure can occur in both infinite and finite slopes. The proposed techniques arguably result in an improved level of confidence in the design of rock slopes susceptible to wedge failure. 0000001110 00000 n
It happens that in some places rock slope failures were so heavy at one spot, and it took place on both sides of the road and blocked it (Fig. 4). The analysis technique chosen depends on both site In this code only one mode that is plane wedge failure ls described (see Fig. 1. Toppling failure is one of the most common modes of failure of rock slopes in layered rock strata. For rock slopes usually two free surfaces (lower outcrop and upper outcrop) are present, ﬁgure 2. Figure 2 shows the wedge failure phenomena in a rock slope. ); can analyse factor of safety sensitivity to changes in slope g eometry and material properties; more 93 0 obj <>
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Eng Geol 202: 55-61 0000038963 00000 n
Slope stability in mining and civil engineering projects is always a problem of great concern. 0000005876 00000 n
slopes such as cut slope, other types of rock slope failure (wedge failure, planer failure, and toppling) may eventually lead to the rockfall event. Rock slopes form part of the components in many highway or roadway constructions in hilly terrain. identify the relevant failure modes based on information of wedge geometry and forces acting on the wedge. (20 marks) (d) Using the planar failure mode equation, calculate the required anchor bars to stabilize the entire rock slope to factor of safety 2. Translational slip in rock slopes. Two arrangements are considered: Plane failure Translational Slide. SWedge is a quick, interactive and simple-to-use analysis tool for evaluating the geometry and stability of surface wedges in rock slopes. Circular failure generally is observed in slope of soil, mine dump, weak rock and highly jointed rock mass. of Colombia, Carrera 30 No. While performing kinematic analysis for wedge failure of rock slope in Dips 6.0 software (RocScience), it indicates region of secondary wedge failure envelop (marked by yellow by default). startxref
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Block or wedge slides occur when a soil mass is shattered along joints, seams, fissures, and weak zones by forces emanating from adjacent soils. Overall stability is always checked for the possibility of deep-seated failure through the rock mass and the method of slices is usually the tool of choice. (1972) A useful technique for estimating the stability of rock slopes when the rigid wedge sliding type of failure is expected. open pit mining, road cuts, etc.) The key question with regard to rock slopes along highways is their long-term stability since failure of a rock slope can have serious consequences. failure, buckling failure and circular failure, are often observed. This type of failure occurs when there are fissures, joints, or weak soil layers in slope, or when a slope is made of two different materials. The wedge failure phe-nomena in a rock slope. PDF | On Jun 20, 2008, Mohamed Fadlelmula and others published Reliability-Based Modeling of Wedge Failure in Rock Slopes | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate 45-03 Building 406 Of 202. 1(b)]. This mode of failure needs the dip angle of at least one joint intersection to be greater than the angle of friction of the joint surface. Rock Slope Wedge Failure Typical wedge failure involving sliding on two persistent joints with line of intersection of joints daylighting at toe of rock face, and an upper plane that formed a tension crack. Failure of a rock slope on one or two plane surfaces is the simplest but at the same time the most important type of sliding failure and forms the basis for the stability analysis of rock slopes. Overall stability is usually controlled by rock mass strength and structure, especially in large open pits. SWedge is a quick, interactive and simple-to-use analysis tool for evaluating the geometry and stability of surface wedges in rock slopes. 0000008177 00000 n
Types of slope/ground failure 2 Planar failure 3 Wedge failure 4 Toppling failure 5 Circular failure 6 3 Controls for ground failure 7 Catch bunds 8 Exclusion zones 9 4 Design of benches and faces 10 ... is weak rock, bedding, joints, structures, blast damage, vehicle vibrations, Wedge Failure Wedge failure can occur in rock mass with two or more sets of discontinuities whose lines of intersection are approximately perpendicular to the strike of the slope and dip towards the plane of the slope. 0000001203 00000 n
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